Catalysis in unconventional environments 1
Chair: Panagiotis Kechagiopoulos
BIOORTHOGONAL PHOTOCATALYSIS TOWARDS METAL SUBSTRATES
(presenter: Luca Salassa)
Abstract: In catalysis, metal complexes are usually employed as catalysts to favor the transformation of organic substrates into added value molecules. In the context of medicinal inorganic chemistry, my group has recently changed this paradigm,1 demonstrating that metal complexes can act as unconventional substrates and be catalytically converted in biologically active drugs with high efficiency and bioorthogonal selectivity.2–4 This contribution will discuss how the rich redox and photoredox chemistry of flavins serve this purpose and provide original strategies for the activation of metal-based anticancer agents in the biological environment.
DESIGN AND SCALE UP OF BIPHASIC MICROREACTORS FOR BIOMASS-DERIVED CARBOHYDRATES' CONVERSION
Tai-Ying Chen, Pierre Desir, Mauro Bracconi, Basu Saha, Matteo Maestri, Dion Vlachos
(presenter: Tai-Ying Chen)
Abstract: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a key platform chemical, is produced from biomass carbohydrates, such as glucose and fructose, via isomerization and/or dehydration under acidic conditions. Most studies have been previously conducted in batch reactors. By applying microreaction engineering for the production of HMF, the production could be intensified, and the energy consumption could be reduced. In particular, a continuous biphasic microreactor offers better mass transfer and extraction efficiency to improve HMF selectivity and yield, and provides feasible operation with a lower capital cost compared to batch systems. In this work, we combine fluorescent microscopy experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulations to systematically investigate and design the continuous biphasic microreactor from various aspects, including fluid dynamics, mass transfer characteristics as well as performance of the microreactor in terms of conversion of sugars and selectivity and energy efficiency. A biphasic microreactor model is established and validated by comparison to our own laboratory experiments of various elements of increasing complexity. Heat transfer by conventional and microwave means will also be discussed. Our study enables us to develop a scale-up and optimization strategy. Importantly, we estimate that this technology opens up the possibility for small scale biorefineries.
Development of new technology for the destruction of pharmaceuticals: heterogeneous catalyst and ozonation
soudabeh saeid, Pasi Tolvanen, Matilda Kråkström, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Tapio Salmi
(presenter: Soudabeh Saeid)
Abstract: The occurrence of residual pharmaceuticals in the environment has raised a particular concern because many of them are discovered in the effluents of wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters. These components are transferred to the rivers and seas across the world mostly by domestic sewage treatments . Combination of heterogeneous catalysis and ozonation is one of the most promising advanced oxidation technologies, and it has currently gained attention as an effective process for removing organic compounds particularly pharmaceuticals .A unique equipment was constructed combining ozonation, heterogeneous catalysis and efficient mass transfer using a spinchemTM RBR technology. With this device, extreme conditions for destruction of wastewater pharmaceuticals could be achieved. Metal-modified catalysts were synthesized using evaporation-impregnation, solid-state ion exchange, solution ion exchange and deposition-precipitation methods. For the catalyst characterization, XRD, SEM, physisorption, EDX, XPS and TEM were employed. Catalytic ozonation of ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ) were examined. The results revealed (Figure 1) that for IBU and IBU by-product ozonation, the presence of heterogeneous catalyst significantly enhances the performance. Similar results were gained for CBZ, DCF, and their by-products by applying heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation.